My counterargument was actually found within the same article I used in my source for my paper. My argument for my paper is that it is the job of colleges to help students integrate into colleges especially those who are disadvantaged or minority students. The reason for this is many of their environments they grew up in were not conducive to an efficient education or the support needed to successfully integrate into higher education. Within the article “The Future of Affirmative Action,” it mentions how many colleges relied on affirmative action to diversify their student bodies and bring in disadvantaged and minority students. My paper argues that strictly relying on this process is not enough. In order to make these students excel in the social and academic aspects of college they need further assistance and mentorship throughout their time and even at times before their college experience.

source: McCormick, Richard L. The Future of Affirmative Action: New Paths to Higher Education Diversity after Fisher v. University of Texas: 11-121. Print.


Literature Review 5

Literature #5

Visual: w10_PresGal_mccormick

Summary: In the reading “The Future of Affirmative Action” Richard L. McCormick starts by talking about how affirmative action is gradually becoming unconstitutional within the eyes of the Supreme Court and has been starting to be banned in multiple states. He mentions how the original goal for affirmative action was to promote diversity by accepting students based on racial backgrounds has continually become controversial. With this in mind McCormick believes that it is now that jobs of the universities to build their diversity themselves and in a more involved way. To do this he writes that colleges must seek out those minority students who have the drive to succeed and help them every step of the way in order to do so. In the article he gives examples of colleges that are doing this like the University of Washington who changed their admission process to require student to write about diversity and adversity. They also went to community colleges and highschool to motivate minority students to apply and educate them on the recourses they would have available for them.

Author: Richard L. McCormick is the president emeritus at Rutgers University. One of his goals when coming to Rutgers was to make the opportunity for students at Rutgers equal for “high-quality academic programs.” McCormick is responsible for launching the Rutgers Future Scholars Program in efforts to create more diversity at Rutgers and greater success at the university for minority students and students from lower-income households. This program prepares students starting from highschool to enter college by providing mentoring and academic support. The students are accepted to Rutgers are able to come with free tuition.

Key Terms:

Affirmative Action: This term is mentioned often in the article and in regards to college admissions it refers to giving minority or disadvantaged groups a higher chance of being accepted into their university based on their background and culture. With the significantly lower number of minority students being admitted into universities or applying, this action was in efforts to promote diversity and motivate these students to enter into higher education.

Recourses and Counseling: In the article it mentions a lot about counseling and providing specific recourses to disadvantaged students. The reason for this is because many of these students are from areas with larger schools systems and not much guidance throughout their academics. Colleges want to ensure that they are getting the extra mentoring in order for them to succeed in a more competitive academic environment that is much different from where many of them are from.

Value: This article was valuable to my paper because it provided me with examples of colleges helping students integrate into school and how beneficial it is. With the success of the two programs in the article it further helped to support my thesis. These real life examples help readers to understand the basis of my research and how it can be applied to actual programs and initiatives that have been put into action.

Quotes: “Key constituencies within the UW community- including the board of regents, the university administration, faculty leaders, and student leaders—came together to design a wide range of measures for promoting student diversity and plan for ensuring their success (McCormick 117)

“They established the student ambassador program and travelled around the state meeting with minority high school students and, through the example of their own experiences at the UW, encouraging the younger students to believe a college education was possible for them.” (McCormick 118)

“The program is succeeding just as we hoped it would. In the spring of 2013, 170 out of the 183 members of the first class at Rutgers Future Scholars graduated form their high schools in Newark, New Brunswick, Piscataway and Camden.” (McCormick 120)

Citation: McCormick, Richard L. The Future of Affirmative Action: New Paths to Higher Education Diversity after Fisher v. University of Texas: 11-121. Print.

Abstract and Bibliography

Within this paper the research found was in order to prove that it is the job of the college to improve the student’s social and academic integration. Specifically students from lower socio-economic classes or minorities have a significant harder time adjusting to the the college atmosphere. This difficult adjustment affects aspects like drop out rates, and overall academic success. Programs that work with students from their earlier years in school like the Rutgers Future Scholars Program have proven to help students with their adjustment to college and have them succeed academically. This paper will hopefully show how colleges can improve their student’s experience and further benefit from their time at their universities.

Guiterrez, Aramis. “Rutgers Future Scholars Program Update September 2013.” Rutgers, 1 Jan. 2013. Web.

Mcanuff, Courtney, and Lisa Ambrose. The Stewardship of Higher Education: Re-imaging the Role of Education and Wellness on Community Impact: 59-71. Print.

McCormick, Richard L. The Future of Affirmative Action: New Paths to Higher Education Diversity after Fisher v. University of Texas: 11-121. Print.

Rubin, Mark. “Social Class Differences In Social Integration Among Students In Higher Education: A Meta-Analysis And Recommendations For Future Research.” Journal Of Diversity In Higher Education 5.1 (2012): 22-38. ERIC. Web. 1 May 2015

Snellman, K. ( 1 ), et al. “The Engagement Gap: Social Mobility And Extracurricular Participation Among American Youth.” Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science 657.1 (2015): 194-207. Scopus®. Web. 31 Mar. 2015.

Stephens, N.M. ( 1 ), M.G. ( 2 ) Hamedani, and M. ( 3,4 ) Destin. “Closing The Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students’ Academic Performance And All Students’ College Transition.” Psychological Science 25.4 (2014): 943-953. Scopus®. Web. 25 Apr. 2015.

Sullivan, A. ( 1 ), H. ( 1 ) Joshi, and S. ( 2 ) Ketende. “Social Class And Inequalities In Early Cognitive Scores.” Sociology 47.6 (2013): 1187-1206. Scopus®. Web. 31 Mar. 2015.

Tinto, Vincent. “Stages of Student Departure: Reflection on the Longitudinal Character of Student Leaving.” The Journal Of Higher Education 59 (1998): 438-55. Print.

Todd C. Ream. “Paying for the Party: How College Maintains Inequality by Elizabeth A. Armstrong, Laura T. Hamilton (review).” The Review of Higher Education 37.2 (2014): 284-286. Project MUSE. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. .

WOOSLEY, SHERRY A., and DUSTIN K. SHEPLER. “Understanding The Early Integration Experiences Of First-Generation College Students.” College Student Journal 45.4 (2011): 700-714. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2015. Stable URL:

Research Blog #8

I interviewed my roommate in order to find out more about my topic. I chose to interview her because she has made multiple trips to Honduras in order to help children of lower economic statuses. She is receiving her masters in special education, a bachelors in psychology and minoring in spanish. Her studies have also made her well aware of the topic and informed about it.


Question: What do you feel educationally students in Honduras are missing educationally in comparison to the United States?

Answer: In developing countries like Honduras the education is really lacking funding. The government doesn’t use the money effectively and specifically in Honduras much of is goes to gaining more power. The schools do not have updated recourses like computers in order to give kids a more advanced educations. Also their inability to pay more for teachers requires them to have unfit teachers educating.

Question: What is the student’s upbringing like?

Answer:Most are brought up in poverty. With not many recourses and parents who struggle for an income, they many times get used to bad habits. Some are taught to steal by guardians at a young age in order to get what they can’t afford. Gangs are also huge in Honduras so many kids only have family members who are heavily involved in gangs to look up to.

Question:Whats the biggest student’s change they would need to need to be more successful in education?

Answer: A stable home and a more advanced education. In Honduras, poverty and war make it hard for these two aspects to be possible. The children also need something to look forward too. Many of them have already assumed what jobs they will most likely get and drop out of school quickly. If they had more hope towards a future that consisted of more options, then they would have more motivation to do well in school.

Question: How advanced are the students academically?

Answer:The academic day is from 7am to 12pm. There are only 5 classrooms and only 15 seats in the classrooms in public schools. Only private schools learn english which is a large setback in their advancement academically. There is also not a lot of homework and things to do outside of the classroom in order to help the student progress. This has a lot to do with their lack of recourses for books. In general education is not as important to them because they don’t see the use in it based on their surroundings so many don’t have the push to become more advanced.

Research Blog #7

My case for my paper is to explain and show that the socio-economic statues of a student heavily influences their success in college. I want to show that the trend of their success academically start from early on. Aspects like parenting styles, extracurricular activities, and race all have an affect on how the student performs in college. My topic actually completely changed from my proposal, but the debate I am presenting in my paper is if a students socioeconomic status affects them academically or not. My research includes research about early childhood experiences to how being a first generation college student affects a student’s college experience. Here are two links to these journals:



Research Blog #6

Screen Shot 2015-04-07 at 9.48.34 PM

This graph shows the difference in involvement in extra curricular activities between students of higher economic statues and lower economic statuses. This involvement affects the student heavily once they go to apply to colleges. Activities outside of the classroom help the child to grow both personally and socially. Without skills learned in these activities these students struggle more in college because they feel a lack of connection. Most of the student’s involvement has more to do with the ability to finance extracurricular activities rather than their desire to be involved.

Literature Review

Literature Review #2

Visual: Stephens_Nicole_032414

Summary: “Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students’ Academic Performance and All Students’ College Transition” studied the effectiveness of different education intervention programs on first-generation college students. It is not only finances that are hindering first- generation students from achieving success, but rather their mentality and knowledge of resources. Researchers found that first- generation students who were informed and took more advantage of college resources achieved more academic success. In terms of psychosocial effects, first- generation students transitioned into college easier with the help of the difference- education intervention. Students were less stressed and were better off socially and academically. The research implies that there are clear disadvantages that come from the different backgrounds of first generation students, but the potential for success is possible if students are informed about their backgrounds and resources. Most importantly, interventions such as the difference- education intervention can effectively close the social-class achievement gap.

Author: Nicole M, Stephens- Stephens is an associate professor at Kellog’s School of Management. Her main focus of research is how social class affects peoples lives and furthermore their education. Her research hopes to figure out a way to promote diversity in communities and schools that are effective for students.

Dr. Maryam G. Hamedani- Dr. MarYam Hamedani is an Associate Director of the Center for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity (CCSRE) located at Stanford University. Her field of study is sociocultural psychology. She researches on the subject of social justice issues and more specifically problems of a lack of diversity and equality in education.

Mesmin Destin- Destin is an assistant professor at Northwestern university in the field of psychology with interests in socioeconomic status and educational motivation. Specifically he researches on how people’s social backgrounds can influence their motivation and economic success.

Key Terms: college resources: A majority of this article was about how different programs geared toward first-generation students could enable them to bridge the achievement gap between social classes. This article calls onto universities to build on and instill these education programs in order to better the success of a first- generation class of students.

First- generation students: This study puts a stress on how being the first generation student has a great affect on a student’s success. The article suggests that many times students of lower social classes are the first- generation to enter college and therefore are not as equipped as quickly for what the university academics entail.

Value: This article was valuable because it brings another perspective to my paper about how to fix the problem of the social class achievement gap. It also shows that even though there are definitely reasons like finances that prevent working social class students from reaching their fullest potential academically, the cause could be a result of a pattern. The pattern is the idea that students are stuck in the fact that they are in the lower social class and have not been exposed to enough resources in order to help them overcome that mentality.

Quotes: “Specifically, this framework should help students to make sense of their particular college experiences, increase students’ overall sense of comfort, and improve their ability to transition and adjust to the novel college context. (944)”

“For example, educating students about how their different backgrounds matter may improve allstudents’ comfort with and ability to navigate across their own and others’ experiences of difference.” (950)

“Two themes emerged across participants’ open-ended responses to the post intervention survey and video-testimonial activity: (a) People’s different backgrounds matter, and (b) people with backgrounds “like mine” can succeed.” (946)

Citation: Stephens, N. M., Hamedani, M. G., & Destin, M. (2014). Closing the social-class achievement gap: A difference-education intervention improves first-generation students’ academic performance and all students’ college transition. Association for Psychological Science, 25(4) 943-953. doi: